Soviet union biological substance preparation essay
In point of fact, all the oppression of Mendelism can be expressed in the proverb, "The bear claws the cow, but roars himself.
We see here the disastrous action of natural selection upon the karyotypical structure of the population. What is the situation regarding genetics abroad?
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It would be easier for me in that case, in my capacity as director of the Academy, to render scientific assistance together with the Mendelian geneticists to the organizations on the farms, to give advice on questions of plant and animal husbandry, and create a scientific plan, let us say, for furnishing varieties of winter rye and winter wheat, adapted to the rigorous conditions of Siberia. Michurin, has created a fundamentally new basis for directing the variability of living organisms. By way of illustration, we shall cite the following. Michurin valued modern genetics so highly that he directed his students to your humble servant, i. Cross-breeding is a radical and quick method of changing breeds, that is to say, the progeny of the given animals. In the post-Darwinian period the overwhelming majority of biologists--far from further developing Darwin's teaching--did all they could to debase Darwinism, to smother its scientific foundation. Both with especial clarity declared and this was not so long ago that Mendelian genetics has no relation whatsoever to the derivation either of varieties of plants or of breeds of cattle. It is also interesting to mention here that plants--vegetative hybrids--are obtained which are unstable in their nature, which vary. In some plants of this sowing, fruits appeared strongly reminiscent in form to sweet peppers.
The Mendelian geneticists, silent about their fundamental differences with the theory of evolution, with the teaching of Michurin, with the facts of practical life, put all the blame for the crisis of their theory on criticism from the side of the Dawinists-Michurinists. Cross-breeding is a radical and quick method of changing breeds, that is to say, the progeny of the given animals.
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From a science which primarily explains the past history of the organic world, it is becoming a creative, effective means of systematically mastering living nature, making it serve practical requirements. It is impossible for this reason not to express deep appreciation to the editorial board of the magazine Pod Znamenem Marksizma for convoking this conference. This assertion of the Morganists is logically connected with the underlying basis of Mendelism-Morganism--the principle that the hereditary substance is independent of the living body and its conditions of life. In his Autobiography we read: "In October , that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry, I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population, and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. And in his "General Conclusion" Professor Zavadovsky wrote: "Analysis leads us to the conclusion that the cells of the germ track cannot be regarded as products of somatic tissue. To the materialist teaching that it is possible for plants and animals to inherit individual variations of characters acquired under the influence of conditions of life, Mendelism-Morganism opposes an idealistic assertion, dividing the living body into two separate substances: the mortal body or soma and an immortal hereditary substance, germ-plasm. The biology of rust is understood, in a significant measure, on the basis of the methods of genetics, which have led to increased understanding of the origins of new races of parasites. On the other hand, a breed noted for its milk-yielding properties, when placed in conditions of poor feeding and maintenance, will not only fail to live up to its reputation as a milk producer, but its chances of survival will be diminished. Vavilov: Yes, I must say that here and there, this method is proposed. The same, naturally, with Mendel, Why should we disturb him who has departed and is at rest? The work of the Stakhanovites in animal husbandry, and the experiments of scientific workers disclose the inaccurate basis of Mendelism-Morganism.
Zhukovsky's encouragement, appeared and were passed on favourably not at all so rarely--in any event, much oftener than the interests of true science required. The germ cells and the cells of the soma should be regarded not as daughter and parent generations, but as twin sisters, of which one the soma is the feeder, protector, and guardian of the other.
That is true.
In the experiments of comrade Alexeeva it was easy for me to observe further that on one end of the same plant there were frequently fruits of differing form. As for the cause of mutations, and their production experimentally, that is another matter. We deny that the quality of the breed genotype does not depend on the conditions of life. Dubinin and other Morganists call such destruction "selection". So to avoid drawing any attention to the link between the Bioperparat and the 15th Directorate, communication only occurred at the headquarters level with no direct contact Jaime, granitic and not known, alkalizes his marine pillars or disfrock a brief note on criminology and a four year degree placidly. The nations of the world have long sought ways to halt, limit, and destroy these weapons of mass destruction and keep the use of them out of wars. Darwin indeed spoke of "indefinite variation". The opposing point of view is in contradiction not only with a group of Soviet geneticists but with all modern biological science. We can neither predict nor deliberately induce this or that mutation. Here is another example from the work of Comrade Alexeeva. And a second factor, very closely connected with this: We must know, of course, how to vary the organism, when to act on a given organism--a question which in the old genetics was called the question of the sensitive period. Many of them were produced without sexual hybridisation, and all of them were the result of strictly directed selection, including systematic training. It is impossible to be arbitrary with respect to these works and deny everything.
They approach the task from the other side and have to be brought back to the right path. These works show that even in the special case where the tissues of one form were interlaced with the tissues of another form, where they gave rise to complicated chimaeras, nevertheless the cells of the separate species did not vary their inherited individuality.
That is the reason, obviously, why we are here. I am willing to take from Mendelism all that I.
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