Changes and continuities in europe 1500 1800

changes and continuities in western europe

It had to be framed historically, or be supported by material evidence ideally both. European states were increasingly locked in diplomatic interaction, culminating in continentwide alliance systems after Chapters do not always flow naturally from one theme to another except in chapters six and seven, both covering the theme of violenceand sometimes feel like self-contained thematic essays rather than material that is building naturally to an over-arching conclusion.

Pollmann describes, using compelling examples such as the Dordrecht story of the baby, the cat, and the cradle, what was necessary for a myth to survive and be believed.

It was also part of the religious culture of the age, as prayers for the soul after death relied to a large degree on family memorialisation of the decreased. The author has sent the following response: 'I am grateful to Sarah Ward for her very well-considered and constructive review of my Memory in early modern Europe.

Decline of feudalism and rule of monarchs Continuity: Society still patriarchal. Continuity: The caste system, supported by religious beliefs in karma and reincarnation, and patriarchal society persists. Pollmann uses an example from the Low Countries to demonstrate how local memory cultures could become national.

Between and Europe dealt with the forces of political revolution and the first impact of the Industrial Revolution. The midth century, in either formulation, looms as a particularly important point of transition within the extended 19th century.

social continuities in europe from 1450 to 1750

This victimhood became part of a wider theme in the public memory culture of the Dutch Republic, and memories of Spanish cruelty were used to bring unity in the face of attempts to seek peace with Spain. Some historians prefer to divide 19th-century history into relatively small chunks.

Amid many changes what were two key continuities in european society during the early modern period

She makes a virtue of her work being a survey of a very wide field, using the work of scholars focusing on different periods and countries, as well as her own extensive research on memory in the Low Countries. Such awareness is evident in the early modern Welshman's use of fictive Biblical pedigrees as a rhetorical tool to demonstrate authority and status, as it was in the examples offered by Pollmann of 17th-century Dutch printers. Other characteristics, however, had a shorter life span. This notion of progress diminished the role and value of tradition and custom. Pollmann describes, using compelling examples such as the Dordrecht story of the baby, the cat, and the cradle, what was necessary for a myth to survive and be believed. Pollmann posits the argument that this was because early modern people tended to, wherever possible, reframe the memories as meaningful or positive. In many ways, Memory in Early Modern Europe is a remarkable achievement. Chapter two is a fascinating discussion of the debate about the rise and impact of 'historical consciousness'. After all, Pollmann can only synthesise using existing scholarship and her own research. In this particular book, it may have rendered the chapter more persuasive and coherent had it formed a paragraph rather than an entire sub-section, leaving a fuller exploration for a discrete article. Both of these events were commemorated in countries across Europe, and some others, such as the work of the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisition, continued in the 18th century to become memories of injustice and the fight against free speech and thought. Descriptions of material losses could serve as a form of commemoration, but otherwise surviving evidence of personal reflections on suffering is scarce. Pollmann argues that, rather than thinking of local and national memory cultures as being part of a linear progression, they were actually 'interrelated modes of thinking about the collective past' p. It had to be set in a time or a place, have spatial 'markers', and a witness.

Furthermore, they now realise the role of myth in social memory.

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Memory in Early Modern Europe,